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June 1991 NOTES AND QUERIES THE AUTHOR OF THE MANUEL DES P^CHES WILLIAM of Waddington, who was probably named after the village of Waddington, Lancashire (three miles south-west of the Cistercian Abbey at Salley),1 and who was probably born during the last quarter of the twelfth century, was a secular canon who became a prominent member of Archbishop of York Walter Gray's legal team, and who seems rapidly to have become one of the Archbishop's favourite servants. His legal career is well documented in the Archbishop's register.2 In c. 1221 'Willelmo de Wydington'3 witnessed a confirmation of a grant of a church to York Minster (Reg. Gray, 142-3 n.). In 1226 'Willelmo de Widindon' and 'Galfrido de Bocland' witnessed a grant to the Archbishop of a parcel of land (Reg. Gray, 221 n.). 'W. de Wydendon and G. de Bocland' are described as the Archbishop's justices at Hexham in a document of 1229, in which they witnessed an archiepiscopal grant of land to Richard, the sometime bailiff of Hexham (Reg. Gray, 235, 227 n.), and as 'our justices' in a document of 1236, in which they again witnessed a grant to Richard (Reg. Gray, 248). ' Some events in the medieval history of this village are examined in my D.Phil, thesis, The Original and Subsequent Audiences of the Manuel des Peches and its Middle English Descendants (University of Oxford, 1990), 267-74. The Tempest family, who owned three copies of the Manuel, held the lordship of the village from 1268. Previous attempts to identify the author of the Manuel have been inconclusive or vaguely suggestive (see C. G. Laird, The Source of Robert Mannyng ofBrunne's Handlyng Synne (Stanford University Ph.D. thesis, 1940), 303-17; E. J. Arnould, Le Manuel des Peches (Paris, 1940), 248-9; A. I. Doyle, A Survey of the Origins and Circulation of Theological Writings in English in the 14th, 15th, and early 16th Centuries (Cambridge University Ph.D. thesis, 1953), i. 58-9). What follows is a positive identification. A detailed study of the evidence in Archbishop Gray's register (; see next n.) has until now never been attempted. The evidence presented here which does not derive from the register has never been noticed before. 2 J. Raine (ed.), The Register, or Rolls, of Walter Gray. Surtees Society, lvi (1872 for 1870). 3 The commonest version of the author's name in the surviving manuscripts begins with the element 'Wid-' (see the variants to line 12751, as presented in Arnould, 436). Only two copies offer 'Wad-'. In Domesday Book the name of the village is spelt - perhaps incorrectly or phonetically 'Widitun'; from the second quarter of the thirteenth century it was commonly spelt 'Waddington'. See A. H. Smith (ed.), The Place-Names of the West Riding of Yorkshire, vi. English Place-Name Society, xxxv (1961 for 1957-8), 199. The manuscript variants thus reflect known historical variants. 155 A year later, in another grant to Richard, they are described as itinerant archiepiscopal justices (Reg. Gray, 249). In 1228 'W. de Widindon and G. de Bokland', described as archiepiscopal justices based at Hexham, witnessed the Archbishop's grant of Hexhamarea lands to Richard (Reg. Gray, 228); in an undated but probably contemporary exchange of lands between these two parties also witnessed by 'Willelmo de Widendon' and 'G. de Bocland', Widendon and Bocland seem to be described as canons of Beverley (Reg. Gray, 227-8 n.).4 In another undated but probably contemporary document, these two men witnessed an exchange of Yorkshire land between the Archbishop and another party; in this document 'Willelmo de Widindon' is described as the seneschal 'domini Ebor.', and 'G. de Bocland' as a canon of Beverley (Reg. Gray, 232 n.).5 Waddington may have been the Archbishop's seneschal for twenty or more years. In 1242 the Archbishop granted trusteeship of private land in the Beverley area to 'domino W. de Wydindon, senescallo nostro' (Reg. Gray, 253). In 1247 an archiepiscopal grant of land to the Prior of the Augustinian house at Worksop, Nottinghamshire (18 miles northwest of Southwell) was witnessed by 'domino W. de Wydindon tune senescallo domini Ebor.', by the Archbishop's Chancellor, and by 'Waltero de Ludham' and 'Ric. de Boyvill' (Reg. Gray, 256-7), the last two elsewhere being frequently associated with Waddington (see below). In 1252 the Archbishop granted a 'general aquittance' to 'Wm. de Wyd., our seneschal' (Reg. Gray, 268). Waddington was a feoffee of the Archbishop in the archiepiscopal Manor of Southwell (a 'peculiar' district in the Diocese of York) for many years,6 and when Gray's register refers to 4 Testibus Bernardo priore de Hext. (Hexham), Ada de Tindale, Petro de Vallibus, Ada Bertram, Thoma de Widington, Roberto de Erington, Radulpho de Erington, Willelmo de Ruley, Willelmo de Widendon, G. de Bocland canonicis Beverl., Thoma de Stanford clerico, et aliis.' 5 Bocland was also Dean of St Martin's-le-Grand and canon and precentor of the collegiate house at Ripon. See A. F. Leach (ed.), Visitations and Memorials of Southwell Minster, Camden Society, n.s. xlviii (1891), 180 n. 6 On the medieval history of the 'Peculiar' see W. Page, The Victoria History of the County of Nottingham, ii (London, 1910), 152-61. 156 NOTES AND QUERIES him in this capacity it often describes him as a 'knight'. In 1226 the Archbishop granted a piece of land in Southwell to 'Wm. de Widindon and his heirs, for their homage and service', 'doing knight service for the 15 th part of a knight's fee therefore' (Reg. Gray, 223).7 In September of the following year the Archbishop granted fifty acres of surplus land in his Manor of Southwell (including some land in Easthorpe, near Southwell) to 'Wm. de Widindon and his heirs, for his homage and service' (Reg. Gray, 226). William thereafter seems to have had a small chapel at Easthorpe, which, like his chantry at Southwell (see below), was dedicated to St Nicholas (Reg. Gray, 223 n.). In 1235 the Archbishop granted land in Southwell and (nearby) Morton to 'dilecto et fideli nostro Willelmo de Wydendon, pro homagio et servitio suo' (Reg. Gray, 244-5).8 The register also often refers to Waddington as a knight when recording his legal services. In 1239 'Sir Wm. de Widindon, knight' witnessed an archiepiscopal grant of land in the Hexham area (Reg. Gray, 252, including n.), and in 1241 the Archbishop's plan for support of a chantry in York Minster was witnessed by 'dominis Willelmo de Widindon et Waltero de Ludham, militibus' (Reg. Gray, 191). Waddington and Ludham ('militibus') also witnessed the Archbishop's grant of a manor to the Dean and Chapter of York in 1241 (Reg. Gray, 195). In 1246 they and other 'knights' witnessed the Archbishop's grant of a church advowson to a private citizen (Reg. Gray, 202). In 1248 'Sir Wm. de Widingdon and Richard de Boiville, knights' witnessed an archiepiscopal grant of land to a private party (Reg. Gray, 259, including n.). In the same year two canons of Southwell and 'Willelmo de Wid[ind]ona et Ricardo de 7 During the same year 'Willelmo de Widindon' and two canons of Southwell witnessed an exchange of land between the Archbishop and the Prior of the Augustinian house at Hexham. See J. Raine (ed.), The Priory of Hexham, ii, Surtees Society, xlvi (1865 for 1864), 93-4. " This land abutted that of Roger de Lanum (Laneham), clerk, an apparent relative of William de Lanum, sometime canon of York and archdeacon of Durham, who founded University College, Oxford (see Reg. Gray, 245 n.). A Matthew Waddington (MA, University College) held the vicarage of Laneham during the early seventeenth century. See K. S. S. Train (ed.), Lists of the Clergy of North Nottinghamshire, Thoroton Society Record Series, xx (1961 for 1959-60), 109, and J. Foster (ed.), Alumni Oxonienses... 1500-1714, iv, (Oxford, 1892), 1550. June 1991 Boyvill militibus' witnessed the Archbishop's grant of land to the Keyper Hospital (Reg. Gray, 288-90). Probably c.1250 'Sir William Wydyngton, Knight, Seneschal of the Archbishop, Bailiff of Southwell Manor' founded a chantry at the altar of St Nicholas in Southwell Minster. Geoffrey de Bocland, Waddington's fellow justice, witnessed the foundation.9 In a 1369 inventory of the goods kept at the altar of St Vincent in Southwell Minster, a copy of Waddington's poem is mentioned ('Et unus liber qui vocatur "manuele peche", lingua gallica conscriptus, pretii iii s. iiii d.').10 In 1241/2 Robert de Lexington (canon of Southwell and King's Justice) founded a chantry in Southwell Minster. A good deal of this chantry's annual revenue was thereafter provided by the Gilbertine house at Sixhills, Lincolnshire (35 miles north-east of Southwell),11 a house in which Robert Mannyng of Brunne, the first translator of Waddington's poem, lived for a time, and to which Mannyng addressed his Story of England.11 In a humorous letter of 13 32, the Chapter of Southwell, after advising the Convent of Sixhills that debtors to the Chapter are routinely excommunicated, urged Sixhills to send the chantry's endowment money within six days.13 Certain historical incidents may expand on this connection. In 1232-5 William 'de y See Leach's Southwell Minster, 180, including nn. The approximate date for the foundation was suggested by Page, VCH Nottingham, ii. 160. The immunity of peculiars and manors from frequent external scrutiny made them ideal spots for nepotistic activities (see VCH Nottingham, ii. 159, and R. M. Beaumont, The Chapter of Southwell Minster (Nottingham, 1956), 11). A person named 'Willelmo de Weddyngton' was a constable of York in 1249 (see J. S. Purvis (ed.), Chartulary . . . of Healaugh, Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Series, xcii (1936 for 1935), 147, where Weddyngton witnesses a grant to Healaugh Priory). "' See Leach's Southwell Minster, 198. This manuscript has not been mentioned in any previous study of the Manuel. It may be St John's College, Cambridge, MS 167, which (cf. fo. 157r) was owned by the middle of the fifteenth century by a John Strelley, of Linby, Nottinghamshire (ten miles west of Southwell Minster). The collection at the altar in the Minster included copies of the Summa Summarum and Pars Oculi Sacerdotis (see Leach, 198, including nn.). 1 ' See Leach, 182, including nn.; on Lexington see Leach, 178. 12 For more on Mannyng's life and writings, see my D.Phil, thesis, 126-96, and 275-8. '•' See Leach, 182, including nn. NOTES AND QUERIES June 1991 Wadingeton', Richard 'de Brunna', and William of Lincoln (archdeacon of Leicester) witnessed a rental contract for land in Eastgate (less than one mile from Bourne, Lincolnshire, the birthplace of Robert Mannyng). William of Lincoln's predecessor as archdeacon of Leicester was Robert Grosseteste, to whom the Manuel des Peches is attributed in two manuscripts of Mannyng's Handlyng Synne}* In 1269 three canons of Southwell were ordered by Archbishop Giffard to induct a Robert 'le Brun' as proctor to a newly appointed prebend of Southwell.15 The date of this event makes it most unlikely that the person involved was the translator of the Manuel, for Mannyng's writing career did not end until the late 1330s.16 In 1294, however, a Thomas of Waddington resigned from the rectory of Toynton St Peter, Lincolnshire (22 miles south-east of Sixhills) to take a post at the church of Leconfield, Humberside (3 miles north of Beverley); the new rector of Toynton St Peter was named Roger Brun.'7 Connections between the Tempest family, who owned three copies of Waddington's poem, and the house at Sixhills will be explored elsewhere.18 MATTHEW SULLIVAN Boston, Massachusetts 14 See K. Major (ed.), The Registrum Antiquissimum of the Cathedral Church of Lincoln, x, Lincoln Record Society, Lxvii (1973), 8 0 - 1 . The attribution of the Manuel to Grosseteste appears in the opening rubrics in Bodleian Library MS Bodley 415 and British Library MS Harley 1701 of Handlyng Synne. 15 See W. Brown (ed.), The Register of Walter Giffard, Surtees Society, cix (1904), 92. The orthographical distinction between 'Brown' (ME Brune) and 'Bourne' (ME Brunne) was not always observed in Middle English. 'Bourne' was occasionally rendered Brune (see E. Ekwall, The Concise Dictionary of English Place-Names, 4th edn (Oxford, 1960), s.v. 'Bourn' and Brendon Hills' (for 'Brown'), 55,63). "• Seen. 12. 17 SeeR. M.T. Hill(ed.), The Rolls and Register of Bishop Oliver Sutton, i, Lincoln Record Society, xxxix (1948), 188. Waddington was presented to Toynton in 1278 (see F. N. Davis, C. W. Foster, and A. H. Thompson (eds), Rotuli Ricardi Gravesend, Lincoln Record Society, xx (1925), 81). He resigned from the rectory of Farforth (12 miles south-east of Sixhills) in 1284 (see Hill, Reg. Sutton i. 53). '" In Historical Notes on Robert Mannyng of Brunne and his Associates', a forthcoming article to be published elsewhere, I shall present evidence which suggests that the Tempests, who were related to the Waddingtons, were also related to Mannyng and to associates of Peter Idley, who refashioned Handlyng Synne during the fifteenth century. 0026-3970/91 S3.00 157 A NEWLY IDENTIFIED FRAGMENT OF THE ANGLO-NORMAN PROSE 'COMPLAINT OF OUR LADY AND GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS' IN CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MSDd.4.351 WHEN Jeanne Drennan and I published the Middle English Prose Complaint of Our Lady and Gospel of Nicodemus (Middle English Texts, 19 (Heidelberg, 1987); reviewed in Notes and Queries, ccxxxiv (1987), 145) we included as a parallel text an edition of the Anglo-Norman source from two manuscripts known to us, British Library MSS Royal 20 B.V (Rl) and Egerton 2781 (Eg). Professor Richard O'Gorman has recently drawn my attention to a fragment of an Anglo-Norman prose text in Cambridge University Library MS Dd.4.35.21 have been able to identify this as a portion of the Complaint of Our Lady and Gospel of Nicodemus. The fragment comprises two folios (fos. 1-2) from the late fifteenth or early sixteenth century which have been bound in at the beginning of a fifteenth-century manuscript of Latin verse and prose. If we use the pagination and lineation of our edition, the text consists of p. 101 AN 9 auoyt-p. 119 AN 9 fes (2). The following collation adds to the apparatus of the text which is based on Rl; it therefore records only readings which differ from those of the base manuscript and not instances of agreement between Rl and Dd against Eg. It does not include obvious mechanical errors. An asterisk denotes an emended reading in Rl. p. 101/AN 9 auoyt*] auoit EgDd, amoyt Rl. 10 assetz] assez en EgDd; de] om. EgDd. 11 Quant] et quant EgDd. 14 comensay] comenceray Dd. p. 102/AN 1 qe (1)] come EgDd. 3 douz) mon douz Dd. 4 & voz) om. Dd; des] om. Dd. 5 tants (2)] tantz des Dd. 6 rendrent] rendent EgDd. 10 & (2)] pur mes EgDd. 12 a* (1)] om. RIEg, et Dd; coueryr] coueri EgDd. 13 lues) om. EgDd. 1 I am grateful to Professor Richard O'Gorman of the Department of French and Italian at the University of Iowa for drawing my attention to Cambridge University Library MSDd.4.35. ; A Catalogue of the Manuscripts Preserved in the Library of the University of Cambridge, vol. i (Cambridge, 1856), 235-7.